Algorithm

With Bubblesort an array can be sorted.

Input: Array a

Output: sorted Array

Variables: n: size of array, i: current position, h

 

Bubblesort(a)

  1. for(n=a.size; n>1; n=n-1)
  2. for(i=0;i<n-1;i=i+1)
  3. If(a[i] > a[i+1])
  4. h=a[i+1]
  5. a[i+1] = a[i]
  6. a[i]=h

 

With Bubblesort an array a can be sorted. It compares two elements e with each other. If they need to be switched this is done. With this algorithm one element is compared with each other element until the comparison is wrong. This is done for all elements.

 

  1. Initialize n with the size of the array and I with 0
  2. for each position n in a and position i in n-1:
  3. Compare value of a[i] with value of a[i+a]
  4. Switch the two elements
    1. Set variable h to value of a[i+1]
    2. Set value of a[i+a] to value of a[i]
    3. Set value of a[i] to h

Homework – Fighting for breath

The text fighting for breath is a text from Dr. Mark Porter. It was published in BBC Radio Times in 1999 on page 38. The text is easy to understand. But it is not written for a scientific paper. There are no references in this text. Most of the time it uses short sentences which is good. But in the third subsection the first sentences is very long. I think that this sentence could be split up. In the text some vague words are used.  Also in my opinion the use of cursive words is not appropriate for the text as a scientific text. Good is that it just uses abbreviations that are common to use – like UK.

Homework – Scientific argumentation

Regarding hypotheses and questions,

  • What phenomena or properties are being investigated? Why are they of interest?

In this paper graph based document similarity is investigated. This approach is “exploiting explicit hierarchical and transversal relations”.  The efficiency of these should be shown. The topic is of interest because word-distribution-based document representations are problematic when the language or vocabulary differ and graph-based approaches are “infeasible in many applications”

  • Has the aim of the research been articulated? What are the specific hypotheses and

research questions? Are these elements convincingly connected to each other?

The specific hypotheses are that the new approach provides a “significantly higher correlation with human notions of document similarity”, that this approach “holds for short documents
with few annotations”, and that the “document similarity can be calculated
efficiently compared to other graph-traversal based approaches”.

  • To what extent is the work innovative? Is this reflected in the claims?

The approach should be more effiecient.

  • What would disprove the hypothesis? Does it have any improbable consequences?

The hypothesis would be disproven if the graph-based approach would be less efficient than other approaches. If it would not produce a higher correlation with human notions of document similarity (for short documents with few annotations) the hypothesis would be disproven.

  • What are the underlying assumptions? Are they sensible?

 

  • Has the work been critically questioned? Have you satisfied yourself that it is

sound science?

 

Regarding evidence and measurement,

  • What forms of evidence are to be used? If it is a model or a simulation, what

demonstrates that the results have practical validity?

As evidence an experiment is used.

  • How is the evidence to be measured? Are the chosen methods of measurement

objective, appropriate, and reasonable?

The evidence is measured with “Pearson and Spearman correlation  plus their harmonic mean, as well as ranking quality using Normalized Discounted Cumulative Gain” These correlation measures are used in related work, making the results comparable.

  • What are the qualitative aims, and what makes the quantitative measures you have

chosen appropriate to those aims?

 

  • What compromises or simplifications are inherent in your choice of measure?

 

  • Will the outcomes be predictive?

 

  • What is the argument that will link the evidence to the hypothesis?

 

  • To what extent will positive results persuasively confirm the hypothesis? Will

negative results disprove it?

Positive results will show that for this set of documents the hypothesis is correct. Negative results will disprove the hypothesis for this set of documents.

  • What are the likely weaknesses of or limitations to your approach?

This approaches needs at least one annotation.

Homework – Abstract

E-Government describes the use of modern technology in the government process. It should support internal processes and the communication with the citizens. This can make the government more effective.   In this paper we discuss the tasks an E-Government system has to comply with. Therefore, different models are analyzed. As an example for E-Government this paper focusses on electronical identity cards. We compare different approaches of implementation – in Germany and Estonia. Especially the security and data protection of these cards is investigated.

Homework – Scientific englisch

We live in the era of Big Data, with storage and transmission capacity measured not just in terabytes but in petabytes (where peta- denotes a quadrillion or a thousand trillion). Data collection is constant and even insidious, with every click and every “like” stored somewhere for something. This book reminds us that data is anything but “raw” – that we shouldn’t think of data as a natural resource but as a cultural one that needs to be generated protected and interpreted. The book’s essays describe eight episodes in the history of data, from the predigital to the digital. Together they address such issues as: the ways that different kinds of data and different domains of inquiry are mutually defining how data are variously “cooked” in, the processes of their collection and use, and conflicts over what can or can’t be “reduced” to data. Contributors discuss the intellectual history of data as a concept, describe early financial modeling and some unusual sources for astronomical data, discover the prehistory of the database in newspaper clippings and index cards, and consider contemporary “dataveillance” of our online habits as well as the complexity of scientific data curation.

 

During succession ecosystem development occurs, but in the long term absence of catastrophic disturbance a decline phase eventually follows. We studied six long term chronosequences in Australia, Sweden, Alaska, Hawaii, and New Zealand; for each the decline phase was associated with a reduction in tree basal area and an increase in the substrate nitrogen to phosphorus ratio, indicating increasing phosphorus limitation over time. These changes were often associated with reductions in litter decomposition rates, phosphorus release from litter and biomass, and activity of decomposer microbes. Our findings suggest that the maximal biomass phase, reached during succession, cannot be maintained in the long term absence of major disturbance and that similar patterns of decline occur in forested ecosystems, spanning the tropical temperate and boreal zones.

 

Facebook’s Graph API is an API for accessing objects and connections in Facebook’s social graph. To give some idea of the enormity of the social graph underlying Facebook, it was recently announced that Facebook has 901 million users – and the social graph consists of many types beyond just users. Until recently, the Graph API provided data to applications in only a JSON format. In 2011, an effort was undertaken to provide the same data in a semantically enriched RDF format  containing Linked Data URIs. This was achieved by implementing a flexible and robust translation of the JSON output to a Turtle output. This paper describes the associated design decisions, the resulting Linked Data for objects in the social graph, and known issues.

Homework – Research

Right now this list does not contain five literature references or the reasons why I picked them as I have not checked all of the literature I found by now. More literature and the reason why I picked it will be added.

  1. Meier, Andreas. EDemocracy & EGovernment: Stages of a democratic knowledge society. Springer Science & Business Media, 2012.
  2. Layne, Karen, and Jungwoo Lee. “Developing fully functional E-government: A four stage model.” Government information quarterly 18.2 (2001): 122-136.
  3. Heeks, Richard, and Savita Bailur. “Analyzing e-government research: Perspectives, philosophies, theories, methods, and practice.” Government information quarterly 24.2 (2007): 243-265.
  4. Assar, Saïd, Imed Boughzala, and Isabelle Boydens. Practical studies in e-Government: Best practices from around the world. Springer Science & Business Media, 2010.

[1]

This book provides basic information about eGovernment. A three stage model is described. Regarding other literature this is a commonly used model. The different aspects of the stages are described in detail.

[2]

I picked this paper because it describes a four stage model that is different to the three stage model of [1]. The stages are described with a definition and their functionality. Also it is a paper that is not one-sided as it also mentions problems and challenges. It has 2049 citations.

[3]

This paper does not provide much new information about eGovernment. The reason I picked this Is that it shows the different approaches in eGovernment research. As it analyzes other literature it shows the influence of different research departments. Also it mentions common problems in this field of research. It has 657 citations.

Homework – “warp drive research key to interstellar “

Assignment 2:

The text warp drive research key to interstellar travel deals with the development of a warp-drive engine. It describes actual approaches and their problems.

One of them is to create distortions in space-time. This should lead to a system generating a bubble of warped space-time, distorting the space-time along the path. With this a speed faster than-than-light could be possible, allowing the spacecraft to cross distances between stars in a matter of weeks. Harold White has made a tabletop experiment to proof this approach. He got a budget of 50.000$ for his research. A very small number compared to the 18 billion the NASA can spend.

Although other scientists scoffed the idea as impossible a surprising number of scientist and engineers believe in this dream. They have founded organizations like the 100 year starship project and Icarus interstellar. Icarus interstellar tries to use fusion power as an engine. Therefor two atomic nuclei are smashed together. This fusion produces a lot of energy, making the spaceship fast enough. But building a fusion power plant hasn’t been successful in the last 50 years.

A reason for their ardor is that in the last years new earthlike planets were detected. Some of them are in the “Goldilocks zone”. This is a zone around the star which is neither to cold nor to hot. Living on these planets could be possible. The problem is to reach them in a reasonable amount of time. The last probe send was the Voyager1. It had been launched in 1977 and left our scholar system in 2012. Its speed is 38.610 miles per hour. With that speed more than 70.000 years would be needed to reach the next stars. Therefor we have to increase the speed of our spacecraft’s.

But increasing the speed leads to new problems. One of these problems is the interstellar dust. Although the dust is microscopic, it causes plenty of damage. The solution could be a massive shield. This would increase the amount of fuel needed. Also the spacecraft has to stop before it reaches its destination. Therefor it would have to turn its engines around to slow itself down. This also leads to an increased amount of fuel.

In times when the NASA struggles to find its priorities an interstellar mission seems premature. But scientists like Jill Tarter argue that exploring other systems is essential to humanities survival, as the risk of extinction on earth is high. Nuclear wars, a pandemic or an asteroid impact could lead to such extinction. The closed habitable planet is Mars. But it would need hundreds of years of climate engineering to make the planet livable.